{4F805597-AC32-42F4-9EE2-BAD88CE3B8B2} Theodor Herzl 1799-1815
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Listing of Additional Information on the Herzl Timeline 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1799

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Napoleon lays siege to the city of Acre, marking the start of his attempted conquest of the Holy land. In an effort to win the support of the Jewish residents of the city he publishes a proclamation in support of the Jews' right to the Holy Land.

The Jewish community is divided over the proclamation, with many reacting to it with joy and hope, while others oppose it. They send a delegation to explain the messianic hopes embodied in this conquest.
More information: Napoleon and the Jews.

Rabbi Moshe Sofer (1762-1839) known as the Hatam Sofer, Rabbi of the Jewish community of Mattersdorf, gives his annual seventh of Av address, preceding the fast of the Ninth of Av . The address comes just four months after Napoleon’s proclamation, and is in essence a response to it. Traditionally the Hatam Sofer would number the years since the destruction, discuss the tragic events and their ramifications. This year he deviates from his custom, and discusses redemption rather than destruction. With great passion, he discusses his high hopes for a nearing Redemption in practical terms. The Hatam Sofer admonishes the Jews of the Diaspora to “Turn yourselves and travel” (Deuteronomy 1:7), and hints at the importance of taking practical measures in Eretz Israel to hasten its coming.

As a result of the restoration of the old rulers in Italy, the Jews are ghettoized again and the restrictions against them reimposed. More Information on the Ghetto of Venice.

 

Napoleon's armies enter the Turkish province of Palestine-Syria, taking Jaffa on March 6.
In April, Kleber leads a French military force to victory near Mount Tabor. With the help of the British armies and supplies, the Turks hold Napoleon off at Acre. On April 26, Napoleon abandons Acre and withdraws with his troops to Egypt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1800

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rabbi Moshe Sofer in his Seventh of Av address discusses the centrality and special importance of settling in Jerusalem. At this time the Jewish presence in Jerusalem is very weak, and the Hatam Sofer is of the opinion that a Jewish majority in Jerusalem is of utmost spiritual and political importance.

The population of Eretz Israel is 300,000, of which 5,000 are Jews. Most of the Jews are concentrated in Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias and Hebron.

 

France defeats Austria at the Battle of Marengo. They conquer Italy, seize Munich, and defeat the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden.

 

 

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1801

 

 

 

 

 


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John Braham (1774-1856), English tenor and son of the chorister of the Great Synagogue in London, returns to England after a European tour and is hailed as the most remarkable singer of his time.

Israel Jacobson (1768-1818), pioneer of Reform Judaism in Germany, establishes a school for Jewish children in Seesen, Lower Saxony. The curriculum is mostly secular and vocational in order to enhance the prospects of emancipation.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1802

 

 

 


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Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), German philosopher and theologian, publishes an essay in which he calls for total emancipation of the Jews.

Foundation of the famous yeshiva at Volozhin. It becomes the prototype of the great yeshivot of eastern Europe on the 19th and 20th centuries.

 

The Treaty of Amiens among France, England and Spain restores the conquests to France. Napoleon becomes First Consul of France for life. He becomes president of the Italian Republic. France signs a treaty returning Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1804

 

 

 

 

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Czar Alexander I promulgates the first Constitution of the Jews. Jews are denied the right to hold leases on land or to operate taverns. They are to be expelled from villages and sent to larger towns and cities, confined to the Pale of Settlement.

The "Maggid of Dubno", Jacob ben Wolf Krantz (1741-1804), dies in Poland.

 

Napoleon is proclaimed emperor of France. The Napoleonic Code is promulgated.

Franz II (1768-1835) is the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He establishes the Austrian Empire in 1804 and reigns as Emperor Franz I.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1805

 

 

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Birth of Simeon Leib Herzl, the paternal grandfather. He lives in Zemlin.

Birth of Hermann Diamant, Herzl's maternal grandfather. He lives in Budapest.

 
 

Vienna is under the siege of Napoleon. Battle of Austerlitz. In the Treaty of Pressburg Austria has to cede territory.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1806

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  Birth of Johanna Katherina Abeles, Herzl's maternal grandmother.  

Napoleon issues a decree convening an Assembly of Jewish Notables from all over the French Empire and the kingdom of Italy to clarify relations between the state and the Jews.

In July the Assembly of Jewish Notables, consisting of 112 community leaders meets in Paris. Abraham Furtado (1756-1812) is elected its president. In September Napoleon issues a call for the Sanhedrin to be held in 1807.

In October, Count Clemens Wenzel Metternich, then Austria's ambassador in Paris, writes of Napoleon's plans for an invasion of central Europe. "There is no doubt, that he will not fail to present himself as a liberator to ... its immense Jewish population."

The Hatam Sofer is named “Prince of Israel”. The title carries with it the responsibility of overseeing the collection of funds for the Perushim in Eretz Israel, funds without which they could not survive. The Hatam Sofer works tirelessly for this cause, collecting funds and encouraging Aliyah. He continues to emphasize the special importance of settling in the holy city of Jerusalem.

 

Prussia declares war on France. The French defeat Prussia at the Battle of Jena. Napoleon occupies Berlin. The British blockade the French ports. Napoleon promulgates the Berlin Decree, which initiates the Continental System, the closure of Continental ports to British ships.

After the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund) under Napoleon I, Franz I renounces his title as Holy Roman Emperor.

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1807

 

 

 

 

 

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In February, the Sanhedrin, convened by Napoleon, meets in Paris. Chairman is the Rabbi of Strasbourg, David Sinzheim (1745-1812). They affirm Jewish political loyalty, assert that they "no longer from a nation within a nation", and condemn money lending at high interest rates. At this time, Napoleon's armies are in Warsaw and the grateful Jewish community undertakes to provision his army.

 

The French defeat the Russians at the Battle of Friedland. Napoleon signs the Treaty of Tilsit with Russia and Prussia. France occupies Portugal.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1808

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Napoleon issues two edicts regulating the position of Jews. The first edict declares Judaism to be an "official" religion and creates a consistory of French Jews headed by a central consistory in Paris to supervise Jewish religious life. The second, the "Infamous Decree", imposes control over Jewish loans, requires special permits to engage in trade, and forbids settlement in northeastern France. It will be abolished in 1818.

Israel Jacobson convenes a group of Jewish notables in Kassel to introduce religious, civic and moral reform among the Jews.

For three years, beginning in 1808, some disciples of the Vilna Gaon, the "perushim", emigrate to Palestine and settle in Safed. Israel of Shklov (d. 1839), talmudic scholar from Lithuania, arrives in 1809 and becomes the leader of the "Kolel haPerushim". Within seven years the numbers increase from 200 to 700. This emigration is considered to be the beginning of the modern settlement of Israel.

 

France invades Spain, and Napoleon installs his brother as king of Spain. The English land in Portugal and defeat the French.

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1809

 

 

 

 

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  Birth of Rebekka Biliz, Herzl's paternal grandmother.  

Pressburg, the city of the Hatam Sofer, comes under a two-month siege by Napoleons armies. It is under these difficult circumstances that the Hatam Sofer is able to forge warm relations with commanding general of the city Archduke Johann, Brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz I. In the following years these connections will assist in the effort to settle Eretz Israel.

 

The Duke of Wellington leads British and Portuguese forces in driving the French out of Portugal, invades Spain, and defeats the French at the Battle of Talavera. Napoleon captures Vienna, defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Wagram, and forces them to cede territory at the Treaty of Schönbrunn. He annexes the papal states.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1812

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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During Napoleon's fateful invasion of Russia, most Russian Jews remain steadfastly loyal to the Czar. Nicholas I will note in his diary during an 1816 visit to Jewish areas, "Surprisingly ... in 1812 they were very loyal to us and assisted us in every possible way even at the risk of their lives."

The Jews of Prussia receive a grant from Friedrich Wilhelm III. They are granted freedom of trade, movement and residence.

The Pale of Settlement takes its final form.

 

Napoleon invades Russia. The Duke of Wellington leads British and Portuguese forces in defeat of France in Spain. They enter Madrid.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1813

 

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Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies defeat the French at the Battle of Leipzig. Wellington leads the invasion of France from Spain.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1814

 

 

 

 

 

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Rabbi Akiva Eger (1761-1837), German rabbi, is appointed rabbi of Posen. He establishes a yeshiva and is a leading opponent of the Reform movement.

Rahel Varnhagen (1771-1833), German socialite, converts to Christianity. Her home is the informal gathering place for literary, social, and political sages of the day, both Jewish and non-Jewish.

 

Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba as the Allies capture Paris.

Louis XVIII is restored to the throne. The First Peace of Paris deals generously with France - it is not occupied or forced to pay indemnity.

The victors convene the Congress of Vienna to discuss the remaking of Europe.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Participants of the Congress of Vienna attend the receptions of Fanny Arnstein (1757-1818) at her famous salon. Although she adopts the ways of contemporary non-Jewish society, she retains elements of loyalty to Judaism.

A "private" Reform synagogue is opened in Berlin.

Shalom Rokeah (1779-1855), rabbi in Belz, is recognized as a zaddik. Thousands of Hasidim become his followers, and Belz becomes the center of Galician Zionism.

 

The British and Prussian armies defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena.

The Second Peace of Paris is signed.

The Congress of Vienna redraws the map of Europe. The German states group themselves into a loose association of 39 kingdoms. duchies, principalities, known as the German Federation. It is dominated by Prussia and Austria. The Netherlands and Poland are created kingdoms. Sweden retains Norway.


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